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生物质固体成型燃料是秸秆综合利用的最佳选择!

2017-06-24 12:45:21 admin 26


焚烧秸秆已经伴随着农业文明持续了几千年的历史,而雾霾还是很现代的事情,为此用治理雾霾来结束焚烧秸秆,虽然有现实的必要性,但逻辑上总是不够圆满。根据湖北环保厅的测算,禁止焚烧秸秆能够在收获季节减少10%的PM2.5,这是相当可观的贡献,但也似乎并非决定性的污染源。

     

我国每年大约制造近8亿吨秸秆,还有3亿吨左右的林业废弃物,这些本身就是能源的来源,直接烧掉太可惜。但是不烧怎么办?如何解决烧秸秆问题?

Burning straw with agricultural civilization, has lasted for thousands of years of history, and the fog is very modern, to burn the straw with governance haze to end, although there is a realistic necessity, but logic is always not enough perfect.According to the department of environmental protection in hubei, the ban on burning straw can cut out 10% of PM2.5 in the harvest season, this is a considerable contribution, but also does not seem to be a decisive pollution sources.


Our country each year about manufacturing of nearly 800 million tons of straw, and 300 million tons of forestry waste, which is in itself a source of energy, direct burn it's too bad.But it does not burn?How to solve the problem of burning straw?

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目前提出的秸秆“五化”处理方法,即肥料化、饲料化、基料化、原料化、燃料化,也基本与国际前沿相当。秸秆还田肥料化存在很多问题,一般的秸秆在地里不降解,打碎了放到地里,头一两年对地没好处,尤其在北方,温度和湿度比较低,秸秆不容易降解变成肥料,长时间看不到效果,农民的意愿度就会降低。秸秆饲料化只能解决一小部分问题,也不是最好的办法。大量地拿去喂牲口,牲口吃不了这么多秸秆,赶上牲口快出栏卖钱了,光吃秸秆也不长膘,还得吃粮食。所以,最好的办法就是把它能源化。就秸秆生物质燃料而言,一个是秸秆变成液体燃料。我国的汽油柴油资源都比较紧缺,秸秆液体燃料在能源安全角度也可靠许多,但就目前来讲,成本是个问题,距离真正的商业化还有比较远的距离。再者是秸秆变身固体燃料,这个是目前秸秆利用最好的办法。

The method of "five chemical" treatment, which is called fertilizer, feed, substrate, raw material and fuel, is also basically the same as the international front. Straw counters-field fertilizer has a lot of problems, straw in the field of general not degradation, broke into the field, the first year or two for no good, especially in the north, the temperature and the humidity is lower, the straw is not easy to degrade into fertilizer, for a long time can't see the effect, can reduce the farmers' willingness to degrees. Straw feed can only solve a small part of the problem, not the best way. There was a lot of stock to feed the animals, and the cattle could not eat so much straw, catching the animals fast and selling their money, and the straw was not fattening, and they had to eat food. So, the best thing to do is to make it energy. In the case of straw biomass, one is a straw that turns into liquid fuel. Diesel gasoline resources are scarce in our country, the straw is also much reliable liquid fuels in the Angle of energy security, but for now, the cost is a problem, distance between the real commercial and more distance. What's more, the straw turns into solid fuel, which is the best way to do it now.

 

大概五六年前,有关部门曾推行秸秆燃烧发电。秸秆直接从地里运到发电厂,和煤混烧发电。当然,单单烧秸秆也可以发电。政府一度很提倡,甚至要求每个县有这么一个秸秆发电厂,但是实践以后,发现秸秆的搜集、运输问题不好解决。把秸秆打碎压块,或者做成颗粒当燃料,在运输问题上就简单很多。但在秸秆搜集问题上,还得有国家制定因地制宜的好政策。例如秸秆多的地方怎么办?少的地方怎么办?

About five or six years ago, the authorities had introduced straw to generate electricity. The stalks are transported directly from the field to the power plant, and the coal is mixed with coal to generate electricity. Of course, burning straw can also generate electricity. At one point, the government was advocating that every county had such a straw power plant, but after practice, it was found that the collection of straw and transportation problems were not easy to solve. It's much easier to break a piece of straw or make a particle into fuel. But in the case of straw gathering, there is also a good policy for the country to make appropriate measures. What if there is a lot of straw? What about less?

         

在我国,每亩地大约产出半吨秸秆,按每吨300元计算,每户人家也能有一小笔毛收入。但如果就近没有相应的秸秆处理企业,除去每吨150元的收集人力费,再加上每吨一百公里约100元的运费,农户不亏已经是万幸。经济账本一摊开,难怪这些农民宁可被抓交罚款,也不愿主动处理承担亏损。而政府“治霾禁烧”的高压,也解决不了这个经济账,有限的正规军赢不了农村无限的游击战,是被历史证明了的真理。这还需要相关的部门,相关的领导干部做多重考虑。毕竟,仅靠简单粗暴的标语起不了什么作用,还是得多接接地气,多想想办法才是正道。

In our country, we produce about half a ton of straw per acre, and at 300 yuan per ton, we have a small amount of gross income per household. But if there is no corresponding to the nearest straw processing enterprises, eliminate human fee collection of 150 yuan per ton, plus one hundred kilometers of about one hundred yuan per ton of freight, farmers kui is not lucky. As the economic books spread, it is no wonder that these farmers would rather be caught paying a fine and unwilling to deal with losses. And the government "put to haze prohibition" high pressure, also can't solve the calculator, limited regulars couldn't beat rural infinite guerrilla warfare, is proved by the history of truth. It also requires the relevant departments and the relevant leaders to take multiple considerations. After all, it's only right that a simple, crude slogan doesn't work, and it's still a lot of ground.

         

秸秆本身是个分布式的能源,分布式能源必须分布式用。秸秆做成颗粒或者压块,农民可以在自家炉子里烧,取暖、洗澡、做饭都可以。还有个问题,就是秸秆比煤的价格高,有的地方煤非常便宜,如果秸秆压块出来的价格高于煤,那么农民就用煤了,不管什么污染不污染,什么便宜用什么。所以相关的政策还是得跟上,适当补贴。既控制了煤的使用,又合理利用了秸秆资源,在控制污染气体排放方面可谓一举两得。

Straw is a distributed source of energy and distributed energy must be distributed. Straw is made into granules or crushed pieces. Farmers can burn them in their own stoves, heat, bathe and cook. There is a problem, that is, the straw is higher than the price of coal, coal in some places are very cheap, if the straw is higher than the price of coal briquetting, so farmers to use coal, no matter what the pollution is not pollution, what with what cheaper. So the policy has to keep up with the appropriate subsidies. It controls the use of coal and makes reasonable use of the straw resources, which can kill two birds with one stone.

         

老百姓种地是为了增加收入,当他们知道无用的秸秆会带来效益的时候,那么他们就不会抵着风险去焚烧秸秆。比如秸秆打包可以卖钱,老百姓会主动向外销售;家里用秸秆颗粒或者压块取暖做饭的成本比煤便宜,老百姓就会放弃使用煤。这就解决了一部分问题。当然,老百姓的作为离不开政府的引导。各级部门领导必须加大秸秆利用的宣传力度,提高农民认识,转变农民思想观念,帮助他们树立环保意识,改变落后习惯。让农民真正认识到秸秆综合利用带来的好处。

The common people work to increase their incomes, and when they know that useless stalks bring benefits, they do not risk burning straw. For example, straw balks can be sold for money, and people will voluntarily sell them. People will give up coal when the cost of cooking is cheaper than coal. This solves part of the problem. Of course, the common people can't rely on the guidance of the government. Department leaders at all levels must increase straw using the propaganda, improve farmers' understanding, changing farmers thought idea, help them set up environmental protection consciousness, change the backward habit. Let farmers really recognize the benefits of the use of straw.


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